Our office specializes in treating, preventing, and repairing injuries & defects of the foot and ankle.


Arthroscopy & Tendoscopy of the Foot & Ankle

We apply arthroscopy & tendoscopy for many pathologies including:

  • Ankle joint (osteochondral lesions, arthritis, fractures, ligament injuries, posterior ankle impingement)
  • Subtalar joint (arthritis)
  • Metatarsal phalangeal joint (Hallux rigidus)
  • Peroneal tendons
  • Posterior tibial tendon
  • Flexor halluces longus tendon
  • Achilles tendon (Haglund’s deformity, Achilles tendinosis)
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive operation in a joint which is done by ‘keyhole.’ A camera is inserted into the joint to look inside while small instruments are used to treat the problem. Dr. Kennedy is the pioneer and world’s expert of arthroscopic surgery and advanced methods of treatment in the foot and ankle.

Osteochondral Lesions

Depending on the size and characteristics of your Osterochondral lesion, we have two different treatment options:

1. Reparative Treatment – Bone marrow stimulation (Microfracture)
2. Replacement Treatment – Autologous osteochondral transplantation (OATS)

This procedure is indicated for smaller lesion and can be done arthroscopically. Multiple holes are made in the exposed bone and they allow bone marrow stem cells to come into cartilage defect site. At the same time BioCartilage (Arthrex) is utilized, which contains key components for cartilage repair such as type II collage, proteoglycans and growth factors. To promote cartilage repair into more normal-like cartilage, we also use bone marrow aspirate concentration or platelet-rich plasma. BioCartilage.

Ankle Instability

Every day an estimated one out of every 10,000 people sprain their ankle, an injury in which one of the two major ligaments on the outer portion of the ankle is stretched and/or torn.

In the great majority of cases, individuals who see a physician for their injury are instructed on how to reduce pain and inflammation. They may be advised to wear an air cast or participate in physical therapy to strengthen the ankle muscles, in order to make a full recovery.

The remaining population—about 10% of people—develop ankle instability, a condition in which, although the ligament has healed, it has done so in a lengthened position. As a result, the person is prone to a feeling of the ankle “giving out” and to additional sprains. Athletes such as ballet dancers, who already have looser-than-average ligaments, are particularly likely to develop this condition.

Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who have persistent symptoms despite functional treatment. Surgery is often achieved with anatomic ligament repair (modified Bröstrum procedure) but some patients require ligament reconstruction using free tendon grafts. We have developed a novel method of hybrid reconstruction using the peroneal longus tendon.

Sports Injuries to the Foot & Ankle

Achilles tendon injuries are the most common tendon injuries of the lower extremity. Both non-operative and surgical treatment offer advantages and potential complications, but surgery decreases the re-rupture rate in comparison to non-operative treatment. We combine PRP or BMAC with the treatment to help quickly return patients to sports activity.

Tendon Injuries to the Foot & Ankle

The peroneal tendons run on the outside of the ankle just behind the fibula. They turn the foot out and provide stability to the ankle during weight-bearing. Tendinosis means inflammation in the tendon. This usually occurs in the setting of overuse or irritation. Patients will usually present with pain right around the back of the fibula. Most patients improve without surgery. We use shockwave therapy and PRP treatments to help stimulate healing growth. Surgical treatment is indicated if the pain does not get better despite the use of these treatments, and can be done by tendoscopy. Tendoscopic surgery is minimally invasive, which allows patients to recover quickly.

Arthritis of the Foot & Ankle

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of “wear and tear” arthritis. While there is no cure for this pathology, in which cartilage is lost progressively in the ankle joint, many biologics have been more recently studied as a regenerative injection treatment. We use not only PRP, but also BMAC, amniotic stem cells, fat cells.

The gold standard of surgical treatment of advanced ankle arthritis is traditionally fusion of the ankle joint. The arthrodesis can be performed arthroscopically with minimal invasive incision. Arthroscopic arthrodesis allows patients to quickly rehabilitate and fusion rates are comparable or better than a traditional open procedure.

Distraction arthroplasty with a external fixator is also an option. This technique stretches the joint apart for a period of time with a frame and unloads the ankle joint, allowing healing of the damaged joint. This can be helpful in patients in whom it is desirable to prolong the need for fusion or replacement.


PRP is produced from a person’s own blood. It is a concentration of one type of cell, known as platelets, which circulate through the blood and are critical for blood clotting. Platelets and the liquid plasma portion of the blood contain many factors that are essential for the cell recruitment, multiplication and specialization that are required for healing.

After a blood sample is obtained from a patient, the blood is put into a centrifuge, which is a tool that separates the blood into its many components. Platelet rich plasma can then be collected and treated before it is delivered to an injured area of bone or soft tissue, such as a tendon or ligament.

PRP is given to patients through an injection, and ultrasound guidance can assist in the precise placement of PRP. After the injection, a patient must avoid exercise for a short period of time before beginning a rehabilitation exercise program.

Shockwave Therapy

Shockwave therapy is a non-invasive method that uses pressure waves to treat various musculoskeletal conditions. This causes blood vessel formation and increased delivery of growth factors to the affected area to stimulate the repair process and relieve pain. Shockwave therapy is not painful and takes only 5 minutes. Shockwave therapy has been used for treatment of a variety of conditions including: Plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinosis, Peroneal tendinosis, Posterior tibial tendinosis, stress fracture, and various kinds of soft tissue injuries.

“I feel very fortunate to have been a patient of Dr Kennedy and his team – they completely changed my life and my ability to enjoy it.”

Neal O. // NYC